TS 10th Class Maths Solutions Telangana | 10th Class Maths Textbook SSC Solutions Telangana

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TS 10th Class Maths Solutions Telangana Chapter 1 Real Numbers

10th Class Maths Textbook SSC Solutions Telangana Chapter 2 Sets

SSC 10th Class Maths Guide Pdf Telangana Chapter 3 Polynomials

TS SCERT 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 4 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables

TS 10th Class Maths Study Material Pdf Telangana Chapter 5 Quadratic Equations

10th Class Maths Textbook Solutions Telangana Chapter 6 Progressions

TS SCERT Class 10 Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Coordinate Geometry

SCERT Maths Textbook Class 10 Solutions Telangana Chapter 8 Similar Triangles

TS 10 Maths Solutions Chapter 9 Tangents and Secants to a Circle

10th Class Maths Question Bank Pdf Telangana State Chapter 10 Mensuration

TS SSC Class 10 Maths Solutions Chapter 11 Trigonometry

TS Maths Solutions Class 10 Chapter 12 Applications of Trigonometry

Telangana SCERT 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Probability

Telangana State 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 14 Statistics

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TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

Telangana SCERT TS 10th Class English Guide Pdf Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
What do you understand by the expression ‘Unity in diversity’?
Answer:
India is a country of many ethnic groups myriad languages, a veritable babel of tongues and numerous modes of apparel. Though there are several religions, sects and beliefs, there are certain common links and uniting bonds that people have sought to develop in order to achieve the desirable goal of ‘Unity in Diversity’. People of different races, cultures, religions and regions live together in our country with the feeling of oneness.

Question 2.
Which aspect is Smith commenting on?
Answer:
Smith is commenting on the distinguished features of India that makes it significant and extraordinary. But the feeling of unity is quite common for every Indian in terms of human, social and intellectual development.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

Question 3.
Pick out the factors that contribute to ‘Unity in Diversity’?
Answer:

  1. A certain underlying uniformity of life.
  2. Historically existing political consciousness.
  3. The cultural heritage we have.
  4. Willingness to accept the good.
  5. Importance given for spiritual wisdom.
  6. Ideals like love, universal brotherhood, fear of God, piety and unselfishness, control of passions and peace of mind.

Question 4.
Why did the writer use the statement, “It is a mere collection of separate people”?
Answer:
The statement “It is a mere collection of separate people” means that the geographical region has a lot many group of people who follow different languages, religious beliefs, cultural practices, food habits etc.

Question 5.
“Hindi is now understood and recognised as the national language of India. Do you agree with the statement or disagree with the author? Give reasons.
Answer:
Yes, Hindi is considered as the lingua franca of India. From north to south of India, from east to west, Hindi is understood and recognised as the national language of India. Hindi, like English, is understood in almost every part of the country and stands as a symbol of unity and brotherhood in the present civilization.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

Vocabulary:

I. Read the following words/phrases and find the words/ phrases from the text which convey the same meaning.
Question 1.
myriad __________
Answer:
myraid : many, composite, several, numerous.

Question 2.
synthesis __________
Answer:
synthesi : uniting bonds, aggregate, whole, uniformity, assimilate

Question 3.
diversity __________
Answer:
diversity : composite, disunity, varied, separate, contrast

Question 4.
dialects __________
Answer:
dialects : language, tribal language

Question 5.
saints __________
Answer:
saints : yogis, maharishis, spiritual leaders

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

II. Read the phrases and find the suitable words equivalent to them from the text.
a) a part of country __________
Answer:
a part of country : land

b) try to do __________
Answer:
try to do : seek to develop

c) develop quickly __________
Answer:
develop quickly : flourish

d) behave in a particular way __________
Answer:
behave in a particular way : emulate

e) a very sad event __________
Answer:
a very sad event : tragedy

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

I. Fill in the table with the most appropriate dance form related to each state and the occasion on which it is performed.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India 1

Answer:

Name of the State Dance form
1. Telangana Perini Dance
2. Andhra Pradesh Kuchipudi, Kolattam
3. Punjab Bhangra, Giddha
4. Karnataka Yakshagana, Bayalata
5. Kerala Kathakali, Mohiniyattam
6. Oriss Odissi, Ghumana
7. Tamil Nadu Bharatanatyam, Kummi

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

Develop a write upon any one of the dance forms of India.
Remember to focus on the following points.
1. The area it belongs to.
2. When is it performed?
3. Description of the dance.
Answer:

A write up on Bharatnatyam :

Bharatnatyam is one of the most popular classical Indian dances. Bharatnatyam Dance – Bha-Bhavam (means expression), Ra-Ragam (means music), Ta – Talam (means beat or rhythm) and Natyam (means dance) inTamil. Bharatnatyam is more popular in South Indian States of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Today, it is recognized as the national dance of India. Bharatnatyam is named after Bharat Muni, author of the bible of classical Indian dance called ‘Natya Shastra’. This dance form is a communion of expression, melody and rhythm.

Bharatnatyam is accompanied by the classical Carnatic music. It has emerged as an offering to gods in temples in South India. The dance is famous for its delicacy and perfection of movements which makes it vibrant and influential. In the ancient times, Bharatnatyam was performed by Devadasis in the temples of Tamil Nadu known as ‘dasiattam’.

‘Tanjore Quartet’, Chinniah, Sivanandam, Ponniah and Vadivelu codified its Mudras on earth. The various forms of the dance, like Alarippu, Jathiswaram, Sabdham, Varnam and Tilana were also introduced by them. The philosophy behind this dance form is to search the human soul and unite with the Supreme Being. This dance form enhances its beauty with the use of literary masterpieces of saints and sages.

Comtemporary classical Indian dance is performed by both males and females. Bharatnatyam dance forms are also used to present various themes such as unity of religions, nationalism, purity of environment, greatness of a king etc. While the dance itself is absolutely appealing and enigmatic, what makes it all the more compelling is the traditional dress and a touch of make up.

There are three main elements of Bharatnatyam namely Nritta, Natya and Mritya. Music for Bharatnatyam is based on Carnatic classical music. Veena, flute, mridangam and violin are the instruments used for music, some of the popular Bharatnatyam performers are Shobhana, Padmini, Bala Saraswathi, Mrinalini Sarabhai, Kamala Laxman, Padma Subrahmaniam and Chithra Visweswaran.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

Project Work:

Collect the data from different families in your area about the festivals they celebrate. You may use the following table to collect the information.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India 2

Answer:

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India 3

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

II. Discuss in groups how the data in the Table given above supports the concept of unity In diversity. You may also discuss if there are some other ways that too may help strengthen this unity.
Ans:
The above table totally supports the concept of ‘Unity in Diversity’. Though the families mentioned in the table are related to different religions, they celebrate all the festivals with much interest. Though Ranga Rao’s family is a Hindu family, the members of that family celebrate the festivals Christmas and Id. Though Alfred is a Christian, his family celebrates Diwali, Holi and Id as well.

The next family is of Md. Basha, a Muslim. Still his family celebrates the festivals such as Diwali and Christmas. All these incidents show us the religious harmony among the Indians. Following the different traditions and cultures which diverse societies in India have developed, there lies a sense of unity which keeps the people of India bonded together. This fundamental unity can be observed among all the Indians and races. People of different religions, castes, regions live together and have deep respect for each other in our country.

India is probably the only country in the world where people belonging to different religions, castes and creeds, speaking different languages, having different cultures, different modes of living, different clothing, worshipping different gods live together in harmony with the feeling of oneness. This is nothing but ‘Unity in Diversity’.

Some ways that help strengthen the ‘Unity’:

  1. Love your fellow as yourself.
  2. You must know that every human being is worthy of profound respect.
  3. Look for ways to help others.
  4. You must focus on the positive.
  5. Share your wisdom.
  6. No discrimination should exist.
  7. Develop the feeling of oneness.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

Self Assessment:

How well have I understood this unit?
Read and tick(✓) in the appropriate box.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India 4

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India 5

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

Answer:

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India 6

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

Unity in Diversity in India Summary in English

India is a nation which has a lot of divesities, in several aspects like ethnic groups, caste, region, religion, language etc. Still, all are connected with some unique bonds. This is a much surprising fact, for the observers. Only through a thorough and deep interpretation, one can understand or get a clear view of it all, as a whole. This is because of the fact that these manifold diversions provide India with a source of strength and wealth.

History says that the element of unity among all these differences is not new. There has been a political consciousness that whole India is a unit, even for centuries. This was all as a result of inflows of varied cultures. Dravidians were in India even before the Aryans. Hinduism has gladly accepted and blended these cultural differences and variations, throughout the nation. Still, there are diverse aspects in our culture.

Language is another area with one hundred and fifty dialects and twenty two officially accepted languages. But, as English is for the world, Hindi is for India. The cultural diversities with music, fine arts, dance, drama, theatre and sculptures form a valuable treasure. The scriptures, temples etc. are treasure houses of spiritual wisdom. The Western world has been eagerly looking forward to India, to acquire this wisdom.

Classical music of India which is built on the concept of ragas and talas is another area with about 250 Ragas, which are common in both North and South of India, has some ragas specific for some peculiar time as well. Experts like Pandit Ravi Sankar here popularised the classical music to the West. Indian dances have not only a lot of variety, but colourful and emotional richness.

Where as the success of West is basically on materialistic achievements and superficial prosperity, India has given importance to the concept of humanism, integrity and spiritual virtue.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

Glossory:

ethnic (adj) = connected with/belonging to a nation, race or people that shares a cultural tradition.;
myraid (adj) = an extremely large number of;
babel (n) = the sound of many voices talking at a time;
amidst (prep) = in the middle of;
superficial (adj) = external or outward;
astonish (v) = to cause surprise;
aggregate (n) = something formed by adding together many things;
interpretation (n) = an explanation / opinion;
penetrate (v) = go into / through;
manifold (adj) = many and several different types;
discern (v) = to know/recognize or understand;
civilisation (n) = human society with well developed social organisation;
assimilate (v) = to become a part of something;
convention (n) = the way in which most people do;
heir (n) = some one who has the right to have the authority in succession;
heritage (n) = features belonging to the culture of a particular society;
blend (v) = to mixe two or more substances together;
dialects (n) = the form of a language that in spoken in one area;
inheritor (n) = A person who has been given something by someone when he is on authority;
sages (n) = wise people;

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 7C Unity in Diversity in India

spiritual (adj) = relating to deep religious feeling;
charity (n) = a system of donating things to the poor or needy;
contemplation (n) = the act of thinking deeply about;
seers (n) = = people who claim that they can see what is going to happen in the future;
piety (n) = showing a deep respect for (eg:-for god/religion) ;
penance (n) = Voluntray self punishment for wrong doings;
aesthetic (adj) = Relating to enjoyment;
emulate (v) = To try to do something as well as somebody else because you admire these;
veritable (adj) = real, true
babel (n) = the sound of many voices talking at a time
apparel (n) = mode of dress
diversities (n) = differences
eminent (adj) = important
bewildered (v) = confused
synthesis (n) = combination
cape comorin (n) = Kanya Kumari
flourished (v) = existed in abundance
creed (n) = a system of religious belief
lingua franca (n) = a medium of communication between people of different languages.
bridged (v) = connected
virtuosity (n) = talent
accompaniment = supplement
dazed (v) = astonished
quest (n) = desire
isolated (adj) = lonely

TS 10th Class Telugu Bits with Answers Pdf

TS 10th Class Telugu Important Bits | TS 10th Class Telugu Bit Bank

TS 10th Class Study Material

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TS 10th Class Maths Notes

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TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name?

Telangana SCERT TS 10th Class English Guide Pdf Unit 8C What is My Name? Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name?

Comprehension:

I. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What made Mrs. Murthy so restless to know her name ?
Answer:
In her scrubbing zeal Mrs. Murthy had forgotten her name. At once she felt that she had lost her own identity. She had lost her self-respect. That made her so restless to know her name.

Question 2.
Do you notice any change in Mrs. Murthy in the first picture and Sarada in the second picture ?
Answer:
Mrs. Murthy in the first picture is more traditional, cool and obedient. She seems to be much bold and energetic in the second one, as Sarada. She feels like a real person as she thinks that she has got her identity and self-respect.

Question 3.
Do you find any similarities between Mrs. Murthy and the women in your family ? If yes, list them.
Answer:
Yes, I find some similarities between Mrs. Murthy and my mother as well as my grandma. My mother and grandma are completely dedicated to the well being of the family like Mrs. Murthy. They totally confine themselves to the chores such as cleaning floors, washing clothes, cooking , looking after children etc. They don’t have any identity and know nothing about the world outside our home.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name?

Question 4.
Why do you think the writer decided to focus on the question of married women’s identity ?
Answer:
The writer decided to focus on the question of married women’s identity because she wanted them to live with their own identity and self-respect. She did not want them to confine to their homes. She wanted them to be given equal rights, equal respect. She wanted that they should also assume some responsibility in nation building activity.

Question 5.
Which part of the story shows that Mrs. Murthy feels her identity restored ?
Answer:
In the last part of the story, when she returned to her husband’s house Mrs. Murthy feels her identity restored. It is clear from her word’s .. from now onwards don’t call meyemoi, geemoi. My name is Sarada – call me Sarada, understood ?”

Question 6.
Dowry was given in Sarada’s marriage. Is taking and giving dowry an offence? What are your thoughts on people offering and demanding dowry?
Answer:
Both taking and giving dowry is an offence. No one should demand dowry nor offer dowry. A person may give her daughter some money or jewellery. But it must not be at demand. It must be pleasing. Dowry is also against the constitution.

Question 7.
Make a list of activities/ professions. Find out about women and men in varied professions. Is there any job that only a woman or only a man can do? Discuss.
Answer:
List of activities or professions :
Lawyers, Doctors, Scientists, Entrepreneurs, Administrative Officers, Soldiers, Teachers, Politicians, Writers, Artists and such others.
There is not any job that only a woman or a man can do. Nowadays women are also doing all types of jobs.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name?

Writing:

I. Translation:

Read the following news item in Telugu and compare it with its translation in English given after that.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name 4

The following is the translated version of the above Telugu news item.

Centre’s nod to Kasturi Rangan Committe Recommondations on Western Ghats

NEW DELHI:
The Ministry of Environment has accepted the report made by the Kasturi Rangan Committee on the conservation of Western Ghats. The committee, in its recommendations, made it clear that no further development activities be undertaken in the Western Ghats spread across the 60 thousand square kilometers in six states.

The committee was appointed by the Union Government and headed by Kasturi Rangan to suggest measures to conserve the rarest ecosystem of the Western Ghat forests. The committee submitted its Report on 15th of April. The Ministry of Environment, after taking opinions of the six state governments and the people of the states, accepted the recommendations. The Western Ghats extend in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu states.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name?

Let’s think of the following.

1. Do you think that translation is just translation of language ? Or does it also include translation of ideas ?
2. Which translation is better true translation or free translation ?
3. Do you find any change in the order of the sentence? For e.g: We have Subject, Verb, Object in English but the order is Subject, Object, Verb in Telugu.
4. Do you think sometimes it creates problems in the choice of vocabulary while attempting to translate a text ?
5. Is it possible to translate a poem from one language to the other ?
6. Is it necessary to take cultural aspects into consideration ?
Answer:
1. No. I don’t think that translation is just a translation of language. It includes linguistic, pragmatic and cultural elements. A literary translation must reflect the imaginative intellectual and intuitive writing of the author. Literary translation must reflect all the literary features of the source text such as sound effects, selection of words, figures of speech, etc.
2. The true translation keeps the original message sufficient without its form and word order changed. While the free translation aims at the message adequately represented paying little attention to the form or order. The method we should employ depends on the form of the text we are to translate. Often the combination of the two methods works better.
3. Yes, I do.
4. Yes, I do.
5. Yes, it is possible.
6. Yes, it is necessary.

Now, take a paragraph in Telugu from your text book/ magazine and translate it into English. List the difficulties while translating the text.

ఎవరీ అబ్బాయి? అతని పేరు నరేంద్రనాథ్. అందరూ నరేన్ అని పిలిచేవారు. అతడే తరవాతికాలంలో విశ్వవిఖ్యాతినొంది సింహసదృశమైన మనోబలానికి ప్రతిరూపమై భారతదేశ యువజనులందరికీ ఆదర్శమై నిలిచిన శ్రీ వివేకానందస్వామి. ఈయన జన్మదినమైన జనవరి 12వ తేదీన మన దేశ ప్రజలంతా జాతీయ యువజన దినోత్సవంగా పండుగ జరుపుకొంటారు. నరేన్ తండ్రి శ్రీ విశ్వనాథ్ దత్త. మంచి పేరున్న వకీలు. ఎంతో చదువుకున్నవాడు. అందరి గౌరవాన్నీ పొందేవాడు. తల్లి భువనేశ్వరీదేవి. రూపంలోను, ప్రవర్తనలోను ఒక రాణిని ఉండేది. అందరూ ఆ తల్లిని ప్రేమించేవారు, గౌరవించేవారు.

Who is this boy ? His original name is Narendranath. All used to call him Naren. He is none other than the person Sri Vivekananda Swami, who became ideal to all Indian youth, by his will-power like that of lion and became world famous, later on. All Indians celebrate his birthday, 12th January as National Youth Day. The father of Naren was Sri Viswanath Datta, a famous lawyer, well educated and respected by all. Mother was Bhuvaneswari. She was like a queen in her appearance and behaviour. All loved and respected her.

Some difficulties while translating the text:
Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language (Source Language by equivalent textual material in another language (Target Language).

  1.  removing arbitrarily through paraphrasing is very difficult.
  2. Selecting suitable words and phrases to translate the meaning along with its feeling is a difficult task.
  3. A translator must distinguish between formal/ informal, fixed expression or personal expressions.
  4. Finding the idiomatic expressions and translating them into other language is the most difficult as every language has its own idiomatic expressions.

Question 3.
Translate the following extract into Telugu and compare it with the original story in Telugu. (Refer to teacher’s handbook for Telugu version.)
‘Sarada! My dear Sarada!’ she shouted and embraced her. The housewife felt like a person — totally parched and dried up, about to die of thirst — getting a drink of cool water from the new earthen kooja poured into her mouth with a spoon and given thus a new life. The friend did indeed give her a new life — ‘You are Sarada. You came first in our school in the tenth class. You came first in the music competition conducted by the college. You used to paint good pictures too. We were ten friends altogether — I meet all of them some time or other. We write letters to each other. Only you have gone out of our reach! Tell me why are you living incognito?’ her friend confronted her.
Answer:
“శారదా, నా ప్రియమైన శారదా” అంటూ అరచి ఆ అమ్మాయిని (తన స్నేహితురాలైన గృహిణిని కౌగిలించుకుంది. ఆ గృహిణి దాహంతో ఎండిపోయి చనిపోబోతున్నప్పుడు క్రొత్త కుండలోంచి చల్లని నీటిని చెంచాతో తన నోటిలో పోస్తే క్రొత్త జీవితాన్ని పొందిన వ్యక్తివలె అనుభూతి చెందింది. “నీవు శారదవు. నీవు పదవ తరగతిలో మన స్కూల్ ఫస్ట్ వచ్చావు. కాలేజీలో జరిగిన సంగీత పోటీలలో నీవు ప్రథమురాలుగా వచ్చావు. నీవు మంచి బొమ్మలు కూడా వేసేదానివి. మనమంతా సుమారు పదిమంది స్నేహితులము. వాళ్ళందర్నీ నేను ఎప్పుడో ఒకప్పుడు కలిశాను. మేము ఒకళ్ళకు ఒకళ్ళము ఉత్తరాలు రాసుకుంటూ ఉంటాము. నీవు మాత్రమే మాకు అందుబాటులో లేకుండా పోయావు. నీవు అజ్ఞాతంగా ఎందుకుంటున్నావో చెప్పు” అని నిలదీసిన ఆ స్నేహితురాలు గృహిణికి నిజంగానే క్రొత్త జీవితాన్ని ఇచ్చింది.

This chapter talks about human rights from a different perspective. Let us now understand the rights of children to keep them safe through the following section:

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name?

Speak for Safety:

Here is a conversation that Tony had with his mother.

Mother : Tony, why are you so irritable these days? Even the next door aunty was telling me that you have stopped going over to help her as you usually do.
Tony : It’s nothing! I don’t want to talk about it.
Mother : No Tony, I feel you are worried about something. Talking about our troubles helps us feel better.
Tony : (Hesitantly) I would like to. But I think it might upset you.
Mother : (Sitting down next to him) It’s not about me, Tony. We need to figure out what the problem is and find a solution.
Tony : Well. It is about the aunty next door. I had gone to her house to give the clothes she had asked me to collect from the dhobi. She asked me to put the clothes in the top shelf of the inside cupboard.(Tony then stops…)
Mother : (Gently) I see.
Tony : Well… she was standing very close to me. It made me feel uncomfortable. And when I tried to move away, she held me back.I did not like it but she would not let go of me. I got away. But it has been bothering me ever since.
Mother : Tony, it is really brave of you to tell me this. Aunty has behaved in an unsafe manner. I will talk to her about it this evening.
Tony : What if she denies it and gets angry with us?
Mother : I know you are telling the truth and I believe you.
Tony : I am a big boy now, may be I should have done something to stop it. I feel ashamed.
Mother : But it’s not your fault! You did not break any rules. The person who breaks the rule is to be blamed. She is the one who needs to feel ashamed, not you. Our laws – like the POCSO Act, prescribe punishment for such offences.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name?

Questions for discussion:

Question 1.
What makes this issue sensitive? What are the different ways to handle such issues?
Answer:
The young woman standing close to the grown up boy and holding him back when he tried to move away makes the issue sensitive. To handle such issues, we have to consult with our elders like parents or teachers who can guide us in a right path.

Question 2.
Always seek help. Do you think the boy was correct? How do you support?
Answer:
Yes, the boy was correct. We should accept that he was wise because he sought the help of his own mother, who was the most trusted.

Project Work:

(a) Collect paper clippings that appeared in daily newspapers over a period of fifteen days or so that depict gender discrimination/violation of human rights/child rights. Paste them on a chart and display the chart in the class.
Answer:
Student’s Activity.

(b) Work in groups and discuss what specific actions you as students can take to stop the violation of human rights/gender discrimination/child rights in school, home and in the locality where you live.
Answer:
Group Work:

Group 1: I (we) will treat all our students equally.
Group 2: We will organize seminars, meetings etc. on the violation of human rights and how to prevent such violation.
Group 3 : We won’t ill treat any body because of their caste religon and gender.
Group 4: We will arrange meetings in our neighbourhood and bring awareness among the people about gender discrimination.
Group 5: We will take the support from community to stop the violation of human rights/gender discrimination/child rights.
Group 6 : We will lodge complaints against such incidents.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name?

Self Assessment:

How well have I understood this unit?
Read and tick (✓) in the appropriate box.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name 1

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name 2

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name?

Answer:

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name 3

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name?

What is My Name ? Summary in English

The author deals with a common scenario that the women in India face – even forgetting their name. Their names are not given much importance. Right from the childhood, they are called with many common names like ammayi, ammadu, amma and so on. Their real name doesn’t has much importance.

The story deals with a lady, who after watching the name board of a lady in her neighbourhood, started thinking about her own name. She couldn’t remember that. She tried to take the help of anyone-the servant, her children, her neighbour and even her husband. But no one could help her. At last she went to her parental home, to check in the certificates as it is mandatory that they hold her name. But her mother told her that her certificates were kept on the attic and they would search them the next day and asked her to take her meal.

When she met her college mate and friend that friend called her by name with affection and talks with her.
After returning home, she found the certificates and prizes.

Taking them she went to her own home. She told her husband to call her by Sarada not by “yemoi, geemoi”. She sat there on the sofa which has not been dusted and started showing her children the album and paintings of her childhood.

About the Author:

Smt P. Satyavathi is one of those writers who have brought feminism to the peak in Telugu literature. Though she is a retired English lecturer, she has great understanding of the Telugu accent and the idiom of the respective regions. She is adept in portraying human experience universally.

The technique of appealing to the readers by weaving the story wonderfully with a philosophical touch and theological aspect is her forte. She has published four anthologies of short stories, five novels and a collection of essays. She has won a number of prestigious awards. This story “What Is My Name” is originally published as “Illalakagaane Pandagouna” in Telugu in 1990 and has been translated into almost all the south Indian languages and Hindi.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8C What is My Name?

Glossary:

perturb (v) = make someone anxious, agitated or worried;
mistress (n) = A woman who has control, power and authority of a house;
daubing (n) = the act of spreading a substance such as mud thickly;
immerse (v) = absorb oneself in something;
giggling (v) = laughing nervously;
anguish (n) = to cause to suffer severe mental distress.
frantically (adv) = worriedly/anxiously;
maternity home (n.phrase) = house of one’s parents (especially a woman’s);
attic (n) = a part of a house under the roof;
parched (adj) = very dry;
choultry (n) = a resting place for visitors;
incognito = having a concealed identify;
fish (v) = search;
sacred (adj) = holy
knots (v) = tying two ends of rope
tucked (v) = pushed
mission (n) = particular work to do
query (n) = a question
maid servant (n) = a lady servant
immersed (adj) = completely covered
urge (n) = impulse
anguish (n) = severe pain
bothered (v) = spent time or energy
chore (n) = household duties
strain (n) = pressure
embraced (v) = hugged
confronted (v) = faced

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Telangana SCERT TS 10th Class English Guide Pdf Unit 8A Jamaican Fragmenta Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Human Rights:

Read the following statement and answer the questions that follow:

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment 1

Question 1.
What does this statement speak about ?
Answer:
The statement speaks about human rights of equality.

Question 2.
Do you agree with the statement ?
Answer:
Yes, I do agree with the statement.

Question 3.
Have you ever witnessed any incidents in contrast of the above statement? Tell your class.
Answer:
I haven’t seen any such incidents. But I have heard that some people are still not allowed to enjoy the rights of equality. Some upper class sections do still deny some human rights to those of lower strata.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Oral Discourse:

Question.
Debate – “Children should not have equal dignity and rights as adults.”
Answer:
I think the children shouldn’t all the rights like that of an adult.

POINTS:
1) Moral (right/wrong)

  • children cant discern from right and wrong
  • there minds cant comprehend.
  • only know because parents say so.
  • so if a parents tell them that killing people is right then it is right in their minds
  • children are essentially sociopaths when born.

2) Maturity (sense of judgment (examples))
ok this is sort of related to morals but in a sense different, this point focuses more on the examples linking to the previous point.

3) Abusive (of power when given)
like what would happen if given the right to vote and drink

4) Misconception (people think children are saints; don’t judge a book by its cover?)
people assume that children are innocent but they lie too.

5) Peer pressure and protection

  • easily fall into peer pressure
  • protection: law protects them, if they don’t then it more likely they will fall into bad influence.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Comprehension:

I. Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
‘I puzzled within myself.’ says the narrator. What conclusion did he come to after this puzzling thought?
Answer:
The narrator wondered if the little dark boy was the son of a servant in the home as he was obeying the white boy’s bidding. As both the boys dressed alike, the narrator concluded that the black boy was not the son of a servant in the white boy’s home. He thought that the black boy was of equal class with his playmate and his neighbour’s child.

Question 2.
‘For a whole day my faith in my people was shaken.’ What do you think was the writer’s faith? Why was it shaken?
Answer:
The narrator’s faith was that his people in their own country like all the other people in other countries live in self-respect and sovereignty where they could enjoy liberty, equality and fraternity, without being discriminated because of their colour and creed. The narrator’s belief was that in his country Jamaica, all people live in harmony without being discriminated.

But his faith in his people was shaken when he saw a little white boy enforcing his will upon a little black boy who, realizing his inferiority very early in his life, abjectly surrendered to the white boy and was at the white boy’s beck and call.

Question 3.
Why did the game next morning astonish the author ? What did he see ?
Answer:
The game next morning astonished the author because the black boy was the master and the white boy was the servant. The boys changed their roles. He saw that the black boy was striding imperiously up and down and the little white boy walked abjectly behind him taking orders from his black master.

Quarrelling 4.
The second day, the narrator smiled as he remembered something. What made him laugh ?
Answer:
On the second day, he realised that the boys were playing a game. He remembered that he too had played the game, when he was a boy, and had enjoyed a lot. This made him laugh.

Question 5.
Read the following sentences from the first paragraph:
…. I noticed two little boys playing in the garden…
The game, if it could be called a game, was not elaborate.
From these two sentences, we can understand that the writer knows it is a game, but then why was he puzzled?
Answer:
The narrator was aware that it was a game, and he too played enjoyed the same game in his childhood. Though the narrator knew it was game, he was very excited as he had seen the little black boy’s obeying the white boy’s bidding. He couldn’t bear the idea of a black child’s submission to a white one. It made the narrator puzzle over the matter.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Question 6.
If the writer had seen the second day’s game on the first day, what would he have thought about it ?
Answer:
If the writer had seen the second day’s game on the first day, he would have understood that it was only a game and wouldn’t have excited over it. He wouldn’t have thought that it was a social problem.

Question 7.
Why did the white man feel surprised at the narrator’s outburst ? Eventually, he also smiled. Why ?
Answer:
The narrator, without any formal introduction went to the white man and tried to explain that the boys were playing only a game. Actually, the narrator misunderstood that the white man too was worried and excited to see the white boy obeying the black boy’s orders. At first the white man felt surprised at the narrator’s outburst but later he also smiled to see the narrator’s imputation of deep motives to children’s actions. More over the boys were his sons.

Question 8.
Did the white man believe in white supremacy ? How do you know ?
Answer:
No, the white man did not believe in white supremacy. I know it from the fact that his wife was a black lady.

Question 9.
How did the narrator come to the conclusion that grown – ups are silly ?
Answer:
On the first day, when the narrator found the two boys playing a game, he misunderstood that the white boy was imposing his will upon the black boy and the black boy was obeying the white boy’s orders. On the second day also, the narrator found the two boys again playing but with changed roles. Then the narrator understood that it was only a game. At that time, he saw a white man watching their game and misunderstood that the white man too was puzzling like him. In this context, the narrator came to the conclusion that grown-ups are silly.

Question 10.
How did the story begin? How did the writer take the story forward?
What is the point of conflict? How did the story end?
What are the characters you empathize with?
Answer:

  1. The story began with the discription of a pleasant morning and a scene he had seen one day.
  2. The writer took the story forward through a scene he had seen one morning and the thought that arose in his mind.
  3. The point of conflict is racial discrimination, which unfortunately was misunderstood by the writer.
  4. The story ends with a detailed classification and assuming that the writer was wrong with his thoughts.
  5. I empathize with the writer himself, who has misunderstood the situation. I also empathize with the father of the boys who is broadminded.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

B. Read the following sentences. Some of them are in accordance with the story. Tick (✓) these sentences, (textual Question has been changed)

Question 1.
The narrator was worried that even a very young white boy commanded the older black boy which indicated racial domination.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 2.
The black boy played the role of servant on both the days and followed his brother’s commands meekly.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 3.
The white boy who was younger of the two played the role of the master and the older boy who was a black played the role of the servant on the first day.
Answer:
(✓)

Question 4.
The narrator observed two boys playing a game one day when he was going for an evening walk.
Answer:
(✗)

Question 5.
The little white boy commanded the black boy to perform a few tasks which the black boy did obediently.
Answer:
(✓)

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Vocabulary:

I. Tick (✓) the correct meaning of the words underlined below.

Question 1.
The game, if it could be called a game was not elaborate.
a) simple
b) detailed
c) brief
d) mysterious
Answer:
b) detailed

Question 2.
The little boy strode imperiously up and down.
a) politely
b) respectfully
c) humbly
d) proudly
Answer:
d) proudly

Question 3.
This man, I said to myself, will puzzle all day on whether the blacks will eventually rise and rule the world.
a) gradually
b) finally
c) immediately
d) temporarily
Answer:
b) finally

Question 4.
Could it be that the little dark boy was the son of a servant in the home and therefore had to do the white boy’s bidding?
a) advice
b) instruction
c) order
d) suggestion
Answer:
c) order

Question 5.
The white youngster walked abjectly behind him.
a) submissively
b) unhappily
c) miserably
d) secretly
Answer:
a) submissively

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

II. The following words/phrases describe the two boys in the story Jamaican Fragment.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment 2

1) Now look for the other words in the lesson that describe the two boys. Write your words in the appropriate column.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment 3

Answer:

The White Boy The Black Boy
light brown hair coarse hair
hazel eyes coal black eyes
white youngster dark youngster
little white boy little black boy
white baby dark boy
little fellow little servant
little white youngster little dark youngster
sturdy youngster little dark boy
little brown boy
strong little Jamaican
dark master
little Jamaican

 

Question 2.
Think of some other words that may be used to describe the characters of the white boy and the black boy.
Answer:

Words used to describe the white boy Words used to describe the black boy
Imperious submissive
Superior faithful
Dominate inferior
Master slave

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

III. Read the following sentence.
The bigger of the two was a sturdy youngster, very dark, with a mat of coarse hair on his head and coal black eyes.

In the above sentence, the narrator described the hair and eyes of the boy in an effective way. The expression “a man of coarse hair” is a metaphor.

A metaphor is a word/phrase used in an imaginative way to describe something or somebody in order to show that the two things have the same qualities and make the descriptions more effective.

Now the hair of the boy can also be described as the hair of the boy is like a mat.
A simile is a figure of speech that expresses the resemblance of one thing to another of a different category usually introduced by like, as.. as.

A simile, like a metaphor, is also a comparison. The primary difference is that a simile contains the words like, as, as as to compare two things while a metaphor simply suggests different (dissimilar) things as the same (similar).

Read the following paragraph and identify the similes and metaphors in it.

Sunitha was an exceptional student. She was good at sports and other co-curricular activities too. One day the teachers were talking about her. The maths teacher said fondly, “My Sunitha is the Shakuntala of our school.” The science teacher said, “She is as clever as Kalpana Chawla and as hard working as Marie Curie.

One day she will bring the Nobel prize to our country.” The physical education teacher started singing the praises of Sunitha saying, “You know, she runs like a hare and swims like a fish. And in the boxing ring? she is a leopard. I must say she is the Mary Korn of our state.”

Unlike other teachers, the social studies teacher hated this girl as Sunitha belonged to the so-called ‘lower caste’. She said, “Sunitha… a hare, a fish and what is that? a leopard. She is more an animal than a girl, I suppose.” All other teachers said in unison, “Yes, she is an animal for animals that cannot understand the metaphor in language.”
Answer:
1. My Sunitha is the Shakuntala of our school, (metaphor)
2. She is as clever as Kalpana Chawla. (Simile)
3. [She is] as hard working as Marie Curie, (simile)
4. She runs like a hare, (simile)
5. [She] swims like a fish, (simile)
6. She is a leopard, (metaphor)
7. She is the Mary Korn of our state, (metaphor)
8. She is an animal for animals, (metaphor).

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Some useful information about ‘Simile’ and ‘Metaphor’.

Simile :
A ‘simile’ is a figure of speech that makes a comparison, showing similarities between two different things. Unlike a ‘metaphor’, a ‘simile’ draws resemblance with the help of the words ‘like’ or ‘as’. Therefore, it is a direct comparison.
Eg: Yogesh is as slow as a snail.
(Snails are notorious for their slow pace and here the slowness of Yogesh is compared to that of a snail.)

Some other examples :
1. The soldiers are as brave as lions. (very brave)
2. Sobha’s cheeks are red like a rose. (very red)
3. Chalapathi is as cunning as a fox. (very cunning)
4. Narasimham is as funny as a monkey. (very funny)
5. Chaitanya is as angry as a bull at a red flag. (very angry)

Commonly used similes and their meanings :
1. as cool as a cucumber : to be calm and relaxed, especially in a difficult situation.
2. as bold as brass : very brave and confident.
3. as smooth as glass : very smooth.
4. as soft as velvet : very soft
5. as fiery as a volcano : easily becoming angry
6. as black as coal : very black
7. as clear as crystal : very easy to understand / see.
8. as slippery as an eel : very slippery.
9. as rough as sandpaper : very rough
10. as crooked as a witch’s hat : very dishonest.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Metaphor :
A metaphor is a figure of speech that uses an image, a story or a tangible example to express a quality or qualities possessed by a person or thing, or to represent a less tangible thing.
Eg: The school is a prison for him.

It obviously doesn’t mean that the school is literally a prison, for that is ludicrous. It is immediately comprehensible, however, that the school shares certain characteristics with prison. It is probable that the person referred to as ‘him’ feels locked up in school, as prisoners feel in prison.

Metaphors used in every day English :
(a) Life is a journey.
(This implies that in life there are always going to be ups and downs challenges, moments of success, moments of failures etc… just like a journey).

(b) He was boiling mad.
(He was very, very angry)

(c) You have given me something to chew on.
(You have given me something to think about)

(d) The assignment was a breeze.
(Assignment was very easy)

(e) Thoughts are a storm, unexpected.
(In the same way in which storms are unpredictable, so are thoughts).

Some other examples:

  1. He was a lion in the battle.
  2. Life is not a bed of roses.
  3. All the world is a stage.
  4. It’s going to be clear skies from now on.
  5. Her voice is music to his ears.
  6. She is a peacock.
  7. He is a shining star.
  8. Ramya is a chicken.
  9. The sun is a golden ball.
  10. Mr. Prabhu is a walking dictionary.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Writing:

Question 1.
Discuss in groups and write an essay on the ‘Violation of child rights in Indian Society’ based on your experiences / reading.
The following points may help you.

  • What are the child rights ?
  • How are they violated ?
  • Reasons for violation
  • Measures to be taken to prevent child rights violation
  • Conclusion

Remember the following points.

  • Collect ideas on the given theme.
  • Sequence the ideas.
  • Maintain coherence and cohesion.
  • Use appropriate linkers.
  • Give your point of view.

What are child rights?
A right is an agreement or contract established between the person who hold a right and the persons or institutions which then have obligations and responsibilities in relation to the realization of that right. Child rights are specialized human rights that apply to all human beings below the age of 18.

According to the UNCRC, child rights are minimum entitlements and freedoms that should be afforded to all persons below the age of 18 regardless of race, colour, gender, language, religion, opinions, origins, wealths, birth status or ability and therefore apply to all people everywhere.

Following are few rights :
(a) The right to education.
(b) The right to expression.
(c) The right to information.
(d) The right to nutrition.
(e) The right to health and care.
(f) The right to protection from abuse
(g) The right against exploitation.
(h) The right to protection from negligence.
(i) The right to development.
(j) The right to recreation.
(k) The right to name and nationality.
(l) The right to survival.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

How are child rights violated ?
Answer:
There are a number of ways in which the rights of children may be violated by inappropriate exposure and media stereotyping. Many children are made to work. They are facing gender discrimination. Many of the children don’t have nutritious food. Many children are separated from their parents by way of trafficking. They are sexually abused.

The girl children along with boys are sexually harassed. Physical abuse of children is generally seen. Within the family, children are forcibly engaged in domestic servitude and used as first choice to assist parents on the field by the small farm families. Outside the family, they are engaged as indented servitude in workshops, hotels, small industries, footpath vending, fire-works, carpet weaving etc.

Reasons for Violation:
There is not any single fact which causes child abuse.
The main reasons for violation are :
(a) poverty
(b) lack of education.
(c) violence between family members.
(d) lack of the support from the extended family.
(e) loneliness and social isolation.
(f) unemployment.
(g) inadequate housing.
(h) superstitions.
(i) gender discrimination
(j) depression
(k) lack of knowledge
(l) mental or physical ill health.

Measures to be taken to prevent child rights violation :
(a) Praise and encourage the children.
(b) Remove poverty.
(c) Increase the rate of literacy.
(d) Learn more about child abuse and child abuse prevention.
(e) Child marriages should be banned.
(f) Give priority to the best interest of the child when making decisions in relation to children.
(g) Provide children with a standard of living adequate for their physical, mental, spiritual and social development.
(h) Combat the illicit transfer of children, sale or traffic of children.
(i) Provide special care for children separated from their families, taking the child’s cultural background into account.
(j) Take steps to promote the physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of child victims of armed conflicts and abuse.

Conclusion:
The government should strengthen the relevant legislative framework. Adequate financial and other resources should be allocated to the promotion and protection of the rights and well¬being of children. Parents and voluntary organizations should try hard to prevent the cases of violation occurred in their homes as well as in their surroundings.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Study skills:

Study the following information given in the table and do the task given below it

Overview of the Forms/Sites of Untouchability Practices in Rural India, by Degree of Prevalence in a Study done in 4000 Villages.

More than 50% of villages 45 – 50% of villages
Denied entry into non – Dalit houses Denied cremation and burial grounds
Prohibitions against food sharing Denied access to water facilities
Denied entry into places of worship Ban on marriage processions
Ill – treatment of women by other women Not allowed to sell milk to cooperatives
Denied barber services
Denied laundary services
Ill – treatment of women by non SC men

 

30 – 40% of villages 25 – 30% of villages
Schools – separate eating Separate seating in Panchayats
Payment of wages; no contract Separate seating in schools
Denied entry in to village shops Not employed in house building
Denied work as agricultural labour Denied entry into police stations
Cannot Sell things in local markets Denied entry into PDS shops
Denied visits by health workers Forced to stand before upper- caste men
Separate seating in hotels
Separate utensils in hotels
Discriminatory treatment in police stations

 

20 – 25 % of villages 15 – 20% of villages
Paid lower wage rates for same work Cannot wear new/bright clothes
Ban on festival processions on roads Denied access to public roads/passage
Segregated seating in schools Denied entry in to Primary Health Centres
Denied entry into private health clinics Discriminatory relationship by non – SC teachers towards to SC students
Separate drinking water in the schools Discriminatory relationship by non – SC teachers towards SC teachers

 

10 – 15% of villages Less than 10% of villages
Denied entry in to Panchayat offices Denied access/entry to public transport
Schools: SC teacher and non – SC student Cannot use cycles on public roads
Separate lines at polling booth Denied entry/seating in cinema halls
Discriminatory treatment in Primary Health Centres Compulsion to seek blessing in marriage

Source: Ghanshyam Shah, Harsh Mander, Sukhadeo Thoras, Satish Deshpande and Amita Baviskar, Untouchability in Rural India. A survey conducted in 565 Villages of 11 states, Sage Publications, 2006.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Now using the information given above, analyse the following forms of untouchability in Rural India. Then prepare a brief report stating how Dalits are discriminated against.
1. List the places where Dalits are denied entry.
2. Where are Dalits separated from other castes ?
3. What are the prohibitions and bans imposed on Dalits ?
Answer:
From the data on Untouchability in Rural India a survey has been conducted in 565 villages, 11 states by Sage Publications, it is evident that Dalits do suffer in free India. In about more than 50% of the villages which are brought under the survey, Dalits are not allowed into non-Dalit houses.

They are not allowed into temples, and they are ill treated by others. In about 40-50% of the villages, they are denied both creamation and burrial grounds. They are not allowed in public places, marriage processions etc and are denied access to water and services like barber, laundry. In about 30-40% of villages, they have separate place to sit at schools, hotels etc, and have separate plates as well.

They are denied to work as labourers, and have no labour contracts. They are even illtreated even by government officials like health workers and policeman. In about 25-30% of villages, they have separate seating at Schools and Panchayats. They are denied their entries at police stations, PDS shops etc. In addition to these, in another 20-25% of villages, they are banned during festivals and denied entry at private health centres.

It is strange to find that they are not allowed to wear new/bright dress at about 15-20% of villages. In about another 5% of villages they even have a separate queue during elections. It is observed that many of the public facilities, public places etc are denied for them. Even if they are allowed, they have separate places. Women are highly illtreated in the society.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Listening:

Listen to your teacher telling you a story of a girl called Maya and say whether the following statements are True or False.

My name is Maya. I was born 14 years ago in a poor peasant family. There were already many children, so when I was born no one was happy.
When I was still very little, I learned to help my mother and elder sisters with the domestic chores. I swept floors, washed clothes, and carried water and fire-wood. Some of my friends played outside, but I could not join them.

I was very happy when I was allowed to go to school. I made new friends there. I learned to read and write. But when I reached the fourth grade, my parents stopped my education. My father said there was no money to pay the fees. Also, I was needed at home to help my mother and the others.

If I were a boy, my parents would have let me complete school. My elder brother finished school and now works in an office in the capital. Two of my younger brothers go to school. May be they, too, will finish.

I know I shall have to spend long hours working either at home or in the field. And then I’ll be married. I have seen my mother working from early dawn to late at night. My life will not be much different.
If I were given the choice of being born again, I would prefer to be a boy.

Question 1.
When Maya was born, all were happy.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
When Maya grew, she began to help her mother.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Maya could not join her friends as she had a lot of work.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Maya completed her graduation.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
If Maya were a boy, her parents would let her complete school education.
Ans:
True

Question 6.
Maya thinks that her life will be much different from her mother.
Answer:
False

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Oral Activity:

Imagine that on the occasion of ‘Children’s Day’ your school is organizing a speech competition on the topic ‘Education of girls for women’s empowerment’.

Draft a speech and deliver it in the class.
The following points may help you in preparing the speech.

  • Importance of girl’s education
  • gender bias and other problems in girls’ education
  • How to end bias towards girls

Remember the following points while delivering the speech :

  • Maintain appropriate posture
  • Modulate your voice using stress, pause and information.
  • Use appropriate gestures and facial expressions.
  • Maintain eye-contact with the audience.

Answer:
Good morning everybody. I wish you all a happy Children’s Day.

As it is well known, we celebrate this day to celebrate the birthday of Chacha Nehru. And I would like to tell you about the importance of women empowerment. The thing that is required for that is education for girl child. It is said that educating a girl /woman is equal to educating a house for they play such a vital role in the household. At present the girl children of the nation are not so seriously considering the aspect of education.

Nor are the parents or the society thinking. Instead they consider it as a burden or unwanted expenditure. This bias need to be brought to an end. They too should be provided with the right of equal opportunity for education, as is in the case of boys. If needed the government should bring some new schemes and incentives, so that the girl children do come to school. It is to be well remembered that where a woman is respected, there prosperity thinks twice to enter.

Thank you one and all.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Jamaican Fragment Summary in English

A.L. Hendricks, a Jamaican, is explaining a strange incident that had happened in his life. On his way to office everyday, he had to walk half a mile to get the tramcar. One day, on his usual way to his office, he saw two boys in front of a house. Both of them were dressed the same but one was black and other was white. He felt that they were playing, but wonders whether it could be called a game.

Because the white boy was the master and the black was obeying his orders, as if he was the slave. Hendricks was shocked and felt much pain for the thought that right from the youngest age the children were taught practically about the discrimination on the colour of the skin. All the day, he couldn’t concentrate on anything as what he had seen in the morning had such an effect on him.

On the next day when he came through the same way, he saw the boys, again, playing the same game. But he was surprised to see that the boys had changed their roles. Now the black boy was the master and the white boy was the slave. It was then he realised that the boys were playing a game. Even he recalled from his memories, how he used to enjoy the game, when he was a child.

He then saw a white man looking at the boys. He felt that the white man would be surprised to see the game and would be in the same confusion, as he was, the previous day. So, he went to the man and tried to say him that the boys were playing a game and they did really enjoy the game as they did not have any such kind of ill thoughts of discrimination in their mind, as that of the adults.

The white man was a bit surprised at what the author said. Then he said, with a smile, that he knew the game of the boys very well, as the boys were brothers, his sons. To the surprised author, he showed the black lady who had come there to call the boys and told him that she was his wife and the mother of the boys.

About the Author:
Arthur Lemiere Hendriks (1922-1992) was a Jamaican poet, writer, and broadcasting director (known as Micky Hendriks in his broadcasting career). He was born in 1922 in Kingston, Jamaica, to a Jamaican father and a French mother. He was particularly well known for his contributions to the Christian Science Monitor, The Daily Gleaner, and BIM. He also contributed as a columnist and literary critic to the Daily Gleaner. He died in 1992 at the age of 69.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8A Jamaican Fragment

Glossary:

pleasant (adj) = happy, enjoyable ;
be flanked by (v) = to have something on one or both sides ;
modest (adj) = without egoism ;
sturdy (adj) = strong and healthy ;
hazel (adj) = reddish / greenish brown ;
elaborate (adj) = expand, explain ;
imperiously (adv) = haughtily ;
shuffled (v) = walked by dragging (one’s feet) slowly along ;
lawn (n) = a strech of open grass covered land in front of the house;
impose (v) = to make someone obey something ;
bidding (n) = ordering ;
at one’s beck and call (idiom) = be ready to do what someone asks;
divine (v) = find out something by guessing ;
imperiously (adv) = haugtily ;
obviously (adv) = without any doubt ;
indefinable (adj) = not able to be described ;
infancy (n) = childhood ;
stride (v) = to walk with long steps ;
astonishment (n) = surprise ;
abjectly (adv) = completely without pride ;
impute (v) = claim that someone has done something unjustly ;
puzzle (v) = confuse ;
coarse (adj) = rough
tramcar (n) = street car
submit (v) = to accept someone’s authority.
sense (v) = become aware
deficiency (n) = a fault
astonishment (n) = very great surprise
eventually (adv) = finally
outburst (n) = a sudden strong emotion

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

These TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits with Answers Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds will help students to enhance their time management skills.

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 1.
The number of covalent bonds that a carbon atom can form is ( )
(A) 2
(B) 4
(C) 6
(D) 1
Answer:
(B) 4

Question 2.
In excited state a carbon atom gets Its one of the ‘2s’ electrons to ( )
(A) 2Px
(B) 2Py
(C) 2Pz
(D) 3s
Answer:
(C) 2Pz

Question 3.
The bond angle in methane molecule ( )
(A) 109°28′
(B) 104°31′
(C) 107°48′
(D) 120°
Answer:
(A) 109°28′

Question 4.
The carbon compound having sp2 hybridizatIon ( )
(A) CH4
(B) C2H4
(C) C2H2
(D) C4H10
Answer:
(B) C2H4

Question 5.
Amorphous allotrope of carbon is: ( )
(A) graphite
(B) diamond
(C) sugar charcoal
(D) fullerene
Answer:
(C) sugar charcoal

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 6.
The hardest allotrope of carbon: ( )
(A) graphite
(B) lamp black
(C) diamond
(D) fullerene
Answer:
(C) diamond

Question 7.
The number of covalent bonds in pentane s ………………………. . ( )
(A) 5
(B) 12
(C) 16
(D) 17
Answer:
(D) 17

Question 8.
The pair of elements which exhibit property of catenation Is ( )
(A) carbon & sulphur
(B) chlorine & carbon
(C) carbon & phosphorus
(D) sulphur & phosphonic
Answer:
(C) carbon & phosphorus

Question 9.
The molecular formula of an organic compound Is C2H6. This compound belongs to the following homologous series. ( )
(A) alkenes
(B) alkynes
(C) alkalies
(D) amines
Answer:
(C) alkalies

Question 10.
The products obtained in complete combustion of hydrocarbons is ( )
(A) CO+H2O
(B) CO2+H2
(C) CO2+H2O
(D) CO+H2
Answer:
(C) CO2+H2O

Question 11.
The compound that reacts with chlorine in presence of sunlight to form chloroform is ( )
(A) CH3Cl
(B) CH2Cl
(C) CH2Cl2
(D) CCl4
Answer:
(C) CH2Cl2

Question 12.
The word root used for saturated hydrocarbons is ……………………. . ( )
(A) yn
(B) -one
(C) al
(D) an
Answer:
(D) an

Question 13.
The secondary suffix used to denote functional group ketone is ( )
(A) -one
(B) -ol
(C) al
(D) olc acid
Answer:
(A) -one

Question 14.
The formula of esters – ( )
(A) -CHO
(B) -COOR
(C) -C=O
(D) -COOH
Answer:
(B) -COOR

Question 15.
The name of the compound with formula CH2 = CH- -CH-CH3 is ()
(A) pentanol
(B) heptanol
(C) dichloroethane
(D) trichloromethane
Answer:
(A) pentienol

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 16.
Most of the aromatic compounds burn with ( )
(A) blue colour flame
(B) red colour flame
(C) sooty flame
(D) non-luminous flame
Answer:
(C) sooty flame

Question 17.
Open chain hydro-carbons are also called –
(A) aromatic hydrocarbons
(B) aliphatic hydrocarbons
(C) alkenes
(D) alkynes
Answer:
(B) aliphatic hydrocarbons

Question 18.
The general formula of Alkenes is ( )
(A) CnH2n+2
(B) CnH2n
(C) CnH2n-2
(D) CnH2n- 1
Answer:
(B) CnH2n

Question 19.
Hydrocarbnc containing at least one triple bond between carbon atoms are called ( )
(A) Alkenes
(B) Alkanes
(C) Aikynes
(D) Aldehydes
Answer:
(C) Aikynes

Question 20.
The general molecular formula of a carboxylic add is ………………….. . ( )
(A) R-COOH
(B) R-OH
(C) -COOR
(D) -NH2
Answer:
(A) R-COOH

Question 21.
If one hydrogen atom is replaced from NH3 by an alkyl group we get – ( )
(A) secondary amines
(B) tertiary amines
(C) primary amines
(D) hexo amines
Answer:
(C) primary amines

Question 22.
The isomer of n-butane is ( )
(A) dichiobutane
(B) isobutane
(C) tertiary butane
(D) primary butane
Answer:
(B) isobutane

Question 23.
Carbon compounds having same molecular formula but different properties are known as: ( )
(A) allotropes
(B) Isomers
(C) homologues
(D) salt family
Answer:
(B) Isomers

Question 24.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons with multiple bonds undergo ( )
(A) catalytic reactions
(B) reversible reactions
(C) double displacement reactions
(D) addition reactions
Answer:
(D) addition reactions

Question 25.
The common name of ethanol is …………………………….. . ( )
(A) methyl alcohol
(B) methyl acetate
(C) ethyl alcohol
(D) ethyl salicilate
Answer:
(C) ethyl alcohol

Question 26.
The common sources of ethnol : ( )
(A) wheat
(B) barley
(C) corn
(D) all of A, B and C
Answer:
(D) all of A, B and C

Question 27.
The important Impurity added to ethanol to make it undrinkable is ( )
(A) methanol
(B) formaldehyde
(C) acetone
(D) benzene
Answer:
(A) methanol

Question 28.
Cough syrups contain as important solvent : ( )
(A) formaldehyde
(B) acetone
(C) ethanol
(D) methanol
Answer:
(C) ethanol

Question 29.
Ethanoic add is also known as – ( )
(A) formic acid
(B) acetic acid
(C) oxalic acid
(D) citric acid
Answer:
(B) acetic acid

Question 30.
Ethanoic add reacts with sodium carbonate and releases ( )
(A) H2
(B) CO2
(C) SO2
(D) NO2
Answer:
(B) CO2

Question 31.
The negative value of logarithm of dissociation constant is denoted as: ( )
(A) pH
(B) pka
(C) pln
(D) nlx
Answer:
(B) pka

Question 32.
The reaction between carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of con. H2SO4 to form sweet smelHng substance is called …………….. . ( )
(A) fermentation
(B) saponification
(C) distillation
(D) esterification
Answer:
(D) esterification

Question 33.
The ester used to remove nail polish is ……………………. . ( )
(A) ethyl acetate
(B) methyl acetate
(C) tribromo acetate
(D) benzol acetate
Answer:
(B) methyl acetate

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 34.
Esters of higher fatty acids and trihydroxy alcohol are known as ( )
(A) glycerol
(B) glycol
(C) glucose
(D) gasoline
Answer:
(A) glycerol

Question 35.
A solution in which the sôlute particles dispersed in the solvent are less than 1 nm in diameter is called ( )
(A) colloidal solution
(B) saturated solution
(C) true solution
(D) buffer solution
Answer:
(C) true solution

Question 36.
A spherical aggregate of soap molecules in water is called ……………………….. . ( )
(A) foam
(B) fog
(C) suspension
(D) micelle
Answer:
(D) micelle

Question 37.
These carbon compounds make oil and dirt present on the cloth come out into water- ( )
(A) perfumes
(B) soaps
(C) detergents
(D) both B&C
Answer:
(D) both B&C

Question 38.
The polar end of soap molecule is ……………………. in nature : ( )
(A) hydrophilic
(B) hydrophobic
(C) hydrogenic
(D) greasy
Answer:
(A) hydrophilic

Question 39.
Saturated hydrocarbons undergo : ( )
(A) addition reactions
(B) substitution reactions
(C) reversible reactions
(D) double displacement reactions
Answer:
(B) substitution reactions

Question 40.
Carbon compounds with identical molecular formula but different structural formulae are called- ( )
(A) catalysts
(B) homologues
(C) isotopes
(D) Isomers
Answer:
(D) Isomers

Question 41.
The number of sigma bonds in ethane (C2H6) molecule ( )
(A) 3
(8) 5
(C) 7
(D) 6
Answer:
(C) 7

Question 42.
The IUPAC name of CH2=CH group is ( )
(A) vinyl
(B) ethyl
(C) ethenyl
(D) ethynyl
Answer:
(C) ethenyl

Question 43.
n-butane and iso-butane are a pair of ( )
(A) isomers
(B) allotropes
(C) homologues
(D) Isotopes
Answer:
(A) isomers

Question 44.
Dimethyl ether is the isomer of ( )
(A) methyl alcohol
(B) ethyl alcohol
(C) diethyl ether
(D) ethanol
Answer:
(B) ethyl alcohol

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 45.
One or more hydrogen atoms of alkanes can be replaced by halogens, nitro group and sulphonic acid group. Such reactions are known as – ( )
(A) substitution reactions
(B) addition reactions
(C) decomposition reactions
(D) catalytic reactions
Answer:
(A) substitution reactions

Question 46.
Which of the following reacts with water to give ethane? ( )
(A) C2H5OH
(B) C2H5-O- C2H5
(C) CH3OH
(D) C2H5MgBr
Answer:
(D) C2H5MgBr

Question 47.
The final product In the chlorination of methane is ( )
(A) CCl4
(B) CHCl3
(C) CH2Cl2
(D) CH3Cl
Answer:
(A) CCl4

Question 48.
Which of the following hydrocarbon is a liquid at room temperature? ( )
(A) ethane
(B) butane
(C) hexane
(D) methane
Answer:
(C) hexane

Question 49.
Which of the following ¡s a planar molecule? ( )
(A) CH3-CH3
(B) CH2=CH2
(C) CH C-CH3
(D) cyclohexane
Answer:
(B) CH2=CH2

Question 50.
Propyne and propene can be distinguished by – ( )
(A) Conc.H2SO4
(B) Sodium metal
(C) AgNO3 in Ammonia
(D) dli KMnO4
Answer:
(C) AgNO3 in Ammonia

Question 51.
C-C bond length in diamond ( )
(A) 1.4A°
(B) 1.42A°
(C) 1.54A°
(D) 1.3A°
Answer:
(C) 1.54A°

Question 52.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons among the following : ( )
(A) propane
(B) ethene
(C) ethane
(D) butane
Answer:
(B) ethene

Question 53.
For artificial ripening of fruits, the hydrocarbon used is – ( )
(A) acetylene
(B) methane
(C) butane
(D) ethane
Answer:
(A) acetylene

Question 54.
The allotrope of carbon which has tetrahedral structure ( )
(A) graphite
(B) coke
(C) animal charcoal
(D) Diamond
Answer:
(D) Diamond

Question 55.
Soap is obtained by the hydrolysis of oil in the presence of a base. This process is called ( )
(A) fermentation
(B) esterification
(C) saponification
(D) fractionation
Answer:
(C) saponification

Question 56.
Gas used is welding is – ( )
(A) ethylene
(B) ethane
(C) benzene
(D) ethyne
Answer:
(D) ethyne

Question 57.
The arrangement of carbon atoms In graphite is – ( )
(A) tetrahedral
(B) hexagonal rings
(C) octagonal rings
(D) nanogonal rings
Answer:
(B) hexagonal rings

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 58.
Name of the compound having molecular formula C6H12 ( )
(A) hexane
(B) hexyne
(C) hexene
(D) butane
Answer:
(C) hexene

Question 59.
Ethanol-containing pyridine is called – ( )
(A) absolute alcohol
(B) rectified spirit
(C) beer
(D) denatured spirit
Answer:
(D) denatured spirit

Question 60.
Allotrope of carbon among the following : ( )
(A) propane
(B) coke
(C) soap
(D) ethene
Answer:
(B) coke

Question 61.
Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes. This is due to ( )
(A) double bond
(B) single bond
(C) hydrogen bond
(D) triple bond
Answer:
(A) double bond

Question 62.
Soaps are – ( )
(A) fatty alcohols
(B) triesters
(C) salts of fatty acids
(D) fatty alcohol sulphates
Answer:
(C) salts of fatty acids

Question 63.
The valency of carbon in carbon compounds: ( )
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
Answer:
(C) 4

Question 64.
Denatured spirit contains: ( )
(A) methyl alcohol
(B) acetic acid
(C) acetol aldehyde
(D) tartaric acid
Answer:
(A) methyl alcohol

Question 65.
Graphite is used as lubricant because of its ( )
(A) metallic lustre
(B) soapy touch
(C)low density
(D) conductivity
Answer:
(B) soapy touch

Question 66.
The functional group of alcohol is ( )
(A) -COOH
(B) -COOR
(C) CHO
(D) -OH
Answer:
(D) -OH

Question 67.
The product obtained when ethylene reacts with hydrogen is ( )
(A) C2H6
(B) C2H4OH
(C) C2H8
(D) C2H2
Answer:
(A) C2H6

Question 68.
An example of aromatic hydrocarbon is ………………………. . ( )
(A) acetylene
(B) propane
(C) benzene
(D) acetone
Answer:
(C) benzene

Question 69.
A series of compounds In which the same functional group substitutes for hydrogen In a carbon compound is called – ( )
(A) octagonal series
(B) homologous series
(C) halogen series
(D) active element series
Answer:
(B) homologous series

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 70.
The succeeding member of the homologous series that follows C4H8 is ( )
(A) C5H12
(B) C5H8
(C) C5H10
(D) C6H12
Answer:
(C) C5H10

Question 71.
Unsaturated carbon compounds usually give ( )
(A) yellow flame
(B) blue flame
(C) orange flame
(D) green flame
Answer:
(A) yellow flame

Question 72.
Animal fats are harmful to health because they contain – ( )
(A) saturated hydrocarbons
(B) unsaturated alcohols
(C) unsaturated fatty acids
(D) saturated fatty acids
Answer:
(D) saturated fatty acids

Question 73.
Alcohols react with sodium metal and liberate: ( )
(A) hydrogen
(B) carbon dioxide
(C) oxygen
(D) chlorine
Answer:
(A) hydrogen

Question 74.
The sweet-smelling substances formed when carboxylic acid reacts with alcohols ( )
(A) soaps
(B) tinctures
(C) esters
(D) fuels
Answer:
(C) esters

Question 75.
These are usually utilised to make shampoos ( )
(A) esters
(B) phenols
(C) aspirin
(D) shampoos
Answer:
(D) shampoos

Question 76.
Acetylene can be prepared by the action of water on ………………… . ( )
(A) Mg3N2
(B) Al4C3
(C) CaC2
(D) CaH2
Answer:
(B) Al4C3

Question 77.
The reagent that can be used to distinguish between alkenes and alkanes is ……………….. .
(A) Chlorine
(B) Hydrogen
(C) Flurolne
(D) Bromine
Answer:
(D) Bromine

Question 78.
An Important reaction that ethylene can undergo: ( )
(A) displacement
(B) addition
(C) substitution
(D) reversible
Answer:
(C) substitution

Question 79.
If all the hydrogen atoms In methane are displaced by chlorine, the compound formed is ( )
(A) chloroform
(B) carbon tetrachloride
(C) methylene chloride
(D) methyl chloride
Answer:
(B) carbon tetrachloride

Question 80.
Another name for Alkanes is ( )
(A) olefins
(B) polythenes
(C) paraffins
(D) acetylenes
Answer:
(C) paraffins

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 81.
The number of hydrogen atoms present in butane. ( )
(A) 4
(B) 8
(C) 12
(D) 10
Answer:
(D) 10

Question 82.
When an amide is heated after adding a base, the gas liberated Is ( )
(A) HCl
(B) NO2
(C) NH3
(D) SO2
Answer:
(C) NH3

Question 83.
The maximum valency of carbon is ………………………. . ( )
(A) 4
(B) 3
(C) 2
(D) 5
Answer:
(A) 4

Question 84.
The property of carbon atoms by means of which they form covalent bonds between themselves and form long chains are closed rings Is …………………….. . ( )
(A) Isomerism
(B) saponification
(C) fermentation
(D) catenation
Answer:
(D) catenation

Question 85.
The number of isomers having molecular formula C4H10 is ( )
(A) 4
(B) 2
(C) 6
(D) 3
Answer:
(B) 2

Question 86.
The molecular formula of Formal dehyde is ……………………… . ( )
(A) CH3CHO
(b) CH3COOH
(C) CH3OH
(D) HCHO
Answer:
(D) HCHO

Question 87.
A solid fuel among the following ( )
(A) butane
(B) gobar gas
(C) coke
(D) diesel
Answer:
(C) coke

Question 88.
The hydrocarbon formed by hydrolysis of alumInium carbide is ( )
(A) methane
(B) acetylene
(C) ethane
(D) pentane
Answer:
(A) methane

Question 89.
benzene Is formed by passing the following compound through hot pipe: ( )
(A) C2H2
(B) CH4
(C) C2H4
(D) C4H10
Answer:
(A) C2H2

Question 90.
The hydrocarbon used In preparation of plastics : ( )
(A) alkanes
(B) alkenes
(C) alkynes
(D) esters
Answer:
(B) alkenes

Question 91.
IUPAC name of img ( )
(A) Chlorobutane
(B) 2 – Chlorobutane
(C) 2, 3 – chloroquine
(D) 2, 3-dichlorobutane
Answer:
(D) 2, 3-dichlorobutane

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 92.
If 2 ml of acetic add was added slowly in drops to 5 ml of water then we will notice ( )
(A) The acid forms a separate layer on the top of water.
(B) Water forms a separate layer on the top of the acid.
(C) Formation of a clear and homogenous solution.
(D) Formation of a pink and clear solution.
Answer:
(C) Formation of a clear and homogenous solution.

Question 93.
When acetic acid reacts with ethyl alcohol, we add conc. H2SO4, it acts as …………………… and the processes Called ( )
(A) oxidizing agent, saponification
(B) dehydrating agent, esterification
(C) reducing agent, esterification
(D) Acid & esterification
Answer:
(B) dehydrating agent, esterification

Question 94.
Oxidant undergoes reaction. ( )
(A) oxidation
(B) reduction
(C) combustion
(D) hydration
Answer:
(A) oxidation

Question 95.
The number of hybrid orbitals formed in sp4 hybridization ( )
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
Answer:
(D) 5

Question 96.
The number or sigma and pi bonds present In ethyne is ( )
(A)2,3
(B)5,1
(C)1,5
(D)3,2
Answer:
(D)3,2

Question 97.
2 ml of ethanoic acid was taken in each of the three test tubes A, B and C and 2 ml, 4 ml and 8 ml water was added to them, respectively. A clear solution is obtained in: ( )
(A) Test tube A only
(B) Test tubes A & B only
(C) Test tubes B and C only
(D) All the test tubes
Answer:
(D) All the test tubes

Question 98.
A few drops of ethano4c acid were added to solid sodium carbonate, The possible results of the actions are ( )
(A) A hissing sound was evolved
(B) Brown fumes evolved
(C) Brisk effervescence occurred
(D) A pungent-smelling gas evolved
Answer:
(C) Brisk effervescence occurred

Question 99.
Which of the following is not an allotrophic Form of carbon? ( )
(A) Fluorine
(B) Fuilerence
(C) Diamond
(D) Graphite
Answer:
(A) Fluorine

Question 100.
2C2H6+7O2 4CO2+6H2O+energy. This is …………………… type of reaction. ( )
(A) reduction
(B) oxidation
(C) combustion
(D) addition
Answer:
(C) combustion

Question 101.
Bad conductor of electricity is ( )
(A) Graphite
(B) Graphen
(C) Diamond
(D) Nanotube
Answer:
(C) Diamond

Question 102.
IUPAC name of TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds 1 ( )
(A) 1-Hydroxy-heptane-6-one
(B) 7-Hydroxy-heptane-2-one
(C) 6-Hydroxy-hexane-2 – one
(D) 1-Hydroxy-hexane-5-one
Answer:
(B) 7-Hydroxy-heptane-2-one

Question 103.
Which of the following is a good conductor of heat and electricity? ( )
(A) Anthracite
(B) Charcoal
(C) Diamond
(D) Graphite
Answer:
(D) Graphite

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 104.
Chief component of cooking as is ( )
(A) butane
(B) methane
(C) ethane
(D) octane
Answer:
(A) butane

Question 105.
A dilute solution of ethanoic acid in water is called ( )
(A) Tincture of iodine
(B) Fehlings solution
(C) vinegar
(D) Tollens reagent
Answer:
(C) vinegar

Question 106.
Ethanol on oxidation gives ( )
(A) Ethane
(B) Formalin
(C) Ethanoic acid
(D) Methane
Answer:
(C) Ethanoic acid

Question 107.
n-butane and isobutane are ………………….. . ( )
(A) alkenes
(B) alkynes
(C) isomers
(D) polymers
Answer:
(C) isomers

Question 108.
What property of carbon allows It to form a large number of carbon compounds? ( )
(A) Tetra valency
(B) catenation
(C) electronegativity
(D) electropositivity
Answer:
(C) electronegativity

Question 109.
Compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen only are called ……………. .( )
(A) alkanes
(B) alkenes
(C) alkynes
(D) hydrocarbons
Answer:
(D) hydrocarbons

Question 110.
Open chain saturated hydrocarbons are called ……………. . ( )
(A) paraffins
(B) alkenes
(C) alkynes
(D) alkyl groups
Answer:
(A) paraffins

Question 111.
Diamond and graphite are ……………. . ( )
(A) Isomers
(B) allotropes
(C) homologous
(D) metals
Answer:
(B) allotropes

Question 112.
C60 has arranged by ……………. pentagons and – hexagons. ( )
(A) 20, 12
(B) 12, 20
(C) 21, 20
(D) 12, 01
Answer:
(B) 12, 20

Question 113.
Carbon compounds containing double and triple bonds are called ……………. . ( )
(A) saturated hydrocarbons
(B) unsaturated hydrocarbons
(C) semi saturated hydrocarbons
(D) hydrocarbons
Answer:
(B) unsaturated hydrocarbons

Question 114.
A very dilute solution of ethanoic acid is ……………. . ( )
(A) ethyne
(B) ethane
(C) vinegar
(D) ethene
Answer:
(C) vinegar

Question 115.
When sodium metal Is dropped in ethanol ……………. gas will be released. ( )
(A) hydrogen
(B) sodium vapour
(C) ethane
(D) ethylene
Answer:
(A) hydrogen

Question 116.
Number of single covalent bonds in ammonia are ……………. .( )
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 1
Answer:
(B) 3

Question 117.
Type of reactions shown by alkanes is ………………………. . ()
(A) addition
(B) thermal
(C) substitution
(D) chain
Answer:
(C) substitution

Question 118.
The distance between two graphite layers is ………………………. . ()
(A) 3Å
(B) 4Å
(C) 3.6Å
(D) 3.35Å
Answer:
(D) 3.35Å

Question 119.
‘Carboxytic acid’ functional group is ………………………. . ()
(A) -OH
(B) -OCH
(C) -COOH
(D) -C=O
Answer:
(C) -COOH

Question 120.
General formula of saturated hydrocarbon is ………………………. . ()
(A) CnH2n
(B) CnH2n+2
(C) CnH2n-2
(D) CnH2n
Answer:
(B) CnH2n+2

Question 121.
Alkane hydrolysis of ester-producing soaps is called ………………………. . ()
(A) carbonation
(B) esterlilcatlon
(C) calcination
(D) saponification
Answer:
(D) saponification

Question 122.
In soap molecule, the end with TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds 2 is called ………………………. .
(A) hydrophilic end
(B) hydrophobic end
(C) micelle
(D) dirt
Answer:
(A) hydrophilic end

Question 123.
IUPAC name of glycerol is ………………………….. . ( )
(A) propane
(B) propanol
(C) propane -1, 2, 3 – diol
(D) propane -1, 2, 3 – troll
Answer:
(C) propane -1, 2, 3 – diol

Question 124.
The carboxylic acid used to preserve pickles is ()
(A) Methanoic acid
(B) Propanoic acid
(C) Ethanoic acid
(D) Butanoic acid
Answer:
(C) Ethanoic acid

Question 125.
The first two members of the alkene senes is ……………… .
(A) methane, ethene
(B) methane, ethane
(C) ethene, propene
(D) ethyne, propyne
Answer:
(C) ethene, propene

Question 126.
……………………………. is also known as marsh gas. ( )
(A) Methane
(B) Ethane
(C) Propane
(D) Butane
Answer:
(A) Methane

Question 127.
Natural gas is a mixture of gaseous ( )
(A) hydrocarbons
(B) esters
(C) acids
(D) bases
Answer:
(A) hydrocarbons

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 128.
………………………… reacts with sodium metal to produce hydrogen gas. ( )
(A) Alcohol
(B) Acid
(C) Ester
(D) Ketone
Answer:
(A) Alcohol

Question 129.
Synthetic detergent is called ……………………….. detergent
(A) washing detergent
(B) surf
(C) soapless
(D) odourless
Answer:
(C) soapless

Question 130.
…………………………… is better than soap for washing clothes in hard water. ( )
(A) Detergent
(B) Synthetic detergent
(C) Surf
(D) Soap water
Answer:
(B) Synthetic detergent

Question 131.
The form of carbon which is known as black lead is …………………… . ( )
(A) coal
(B) charcoal
(C) graphite
(D) graphene
Answer:
(C) graphite

Question 132.
Carbon compounds have usually low melting points and boiling points because they are …………………… in nature. ( )
(A) covalent
(B) ionic
(C) chemical
(D) gases
Answer:
(A) covalent

Question 133.
Compounds of carbon with hydrogen alone are called ……………….. . ( )
(A) hydroxy
(B) carboxy
(C) carbohydrates
(D) hydrocarbons
Answer:
(D) hydro carbons

Question 134.
Ethene and ethyne are examples of ……………… hydrocarbons. ( )
(A) saturated
(B) unsaturated
(C) semi saturated
(D) supersaturated
Answer:
(B) unsaturated

Question 135.
Ethyne has ………………………… carbon-hydrogen single bonds. ( )
(A) 3
(B) 4
(C) 2
(D) 1
Answer:
(C) 2

Question 136.
The IUPAC name of acetylene is …………………….. . ( )
(A) ethane
(B) ethene
(C) ethyne
(D) ethyl
Answer:
(C) ethyne

Question 137.
The next homologue of C2H5OH is ( )
(A) C3H7OH
(B) C3H6OH
(C) C4H7OH
(D) CH6OH
Answer:
(A) C3H7OH

TS 10th Class Physical Science Bits Chapter 12 Carbon and its Compounds

Question 138.
The sodium salt of a long chain fatty acids is called …………………. . ( )
(A) sodium salt
(B) acidic fat
(C) detergent
(D) soap
Answer:
(D) soap

Question 139.
Hexane ………………….. . ( )
(A) C6H6
(B) C6H12
(C) C6H14
(D) C6H10
Answer:
(C) C6H14

Question 140.
Butene …………………….. . ( )
(A) C4H6
(B) C4H10
(C) C6H8
(D) C4H4
Answer:
(A) C4H6

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never – Never Nest

Telangana SCERT TS 10th Class English Guide Pdf Unit 3C The Never – Never Nest Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never – Never Nest

Comprehension:

I. Answer the following Questions:

Question 1.
Aunt Jane thought that she had given away 2000 pounds instead of 200 pounds? What made her think so?
Answer:
Aunt Jane saw that Jack and Jill had all the modern comforts such as car, piano, refrigerator, radiogram and so on and thought that it was wonderful. But she was surprised to see them with all those things though Jack’s earnings were meagre. At one time, she worried about the cheque given them by her for their wedding present. She doubtful whether she had given away 2000 pounds instead of 200 pounds.

Question 2.
What surprised Aunt Jane most?
Answer:
Aunt Jane thought that they would pay a great deal for rent as the house in which they were living was very lovely. But, Jack told her that they didn’t pay rent. He also told her that the house was theirs. This news surprised Aunt Jane most.

Question 3.
“And the piano? …………… And the furniture?” What do these questions suggest ?
Answer:
These questions suggest us that Jack and Jill owned all their things on instalment basis.
When Aunt Jane came to know this from them, she was surprised and asked them the above questions. She thought that it was all absurd.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Question 4.
Would you have bought so many things if you were Jack? Why?
Answer:
If I were Jack, I wouldn’t have bought so many things like he did. I would have bought only one or two things on instalment basis. So that I wouldn’t have fallen into debts. If a person purchases many things on instalment basis, he has to pay more money towards the instalments. But when he finds it difficult to pay off them, he will then proceed to a money lender to take loan. Thus, one can’t get rid of one’s debts if one buys many things on instalment basis. Hence, I don’t go to buy many things on instalment basis.

Question 5.
Who do you think first understood Aunt Jane? Substantiate your answer.
Answer:
I think, Jill first understood Aunt Jane. Before her leaving Aunt Jane gave them a cheque worth 10 pounds and asked them to pay off one of their bills and own at least one thing. When Jack went out to see Aunt Jane to the bus, Jill sent the cheque to Dr. Martin. She wanted to own their baby with just one more instalment. We understand that Jill understood Aunt Jane and tried to follow her advice.

Question 6.
What would you have done with the 10 pounds if you were Jack/Jill?
Answer:
If I were Jack/Jill, I would have paid off one of my bills and made atleast one thing completely ours.

Question 7.
Did your parents buy anything by an easy instalment scheme? Do you support or oppose this scheme? Why?
Answer:
My parents bought a car by an easy instalment scheme. I don’t support this instalment scheme. If one buys things on instalment basis, one has to pay a lot towards interest. Thus one has to pay more money than actually needed. Sometimes, we are not able to pay off our instalments. Then we opt to borrow money from a money lender on a high rate of-interest. Thus, the system of instalment keeps us permanently in debt. Hence I strongly oppose the instalment scheme.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Question 8.
Write a critical review of the play, ‘The Never-never Nest’ bringing out the point of view of the writer.
Answer:
“The Never- Never Nest”, whose playwright is Cedric Mount, is a one-act play, depicting a naive couple Jack & Jill, who bought each & every luxury of life on installments & are living cheerfully without even being aware that they would be struggling under the burden in the near future.

The title of the play — “The Never- Never Nest” has two ‘never’ in it, ensuring that the nest would never be built. The double negative is emphasizing the impossibility of home.

The ‘nest’ in the title, literally refers to the home of birds.

Birds make their home by collecting straws & twigs of various trees. The nest acts as their temporary home as they do migration with respect to the changing weather conditions. Also, they are not safe, as different animals might attack their nest anytime. The same is the case with Jack & Jill.

The word ‘nest’ is a suggestion of instability. It is suggesting a temporary home. The couple can be attacked by the money-lenders anytime if the installments are not paid on the designated time.

Moreover, they have not just purchased home on installments, rather they brought each & everything of the house like furniture, piano, radiogram & even the car on installments. At the end of the play, humor takes on wings when we got to know that the couple had their baby on installments.

The word ‘nest’ in the title may also be interpreted as a source of humor, especially satire, which the playwright tried to bring. Birds take a lot of time to build their nest as they have to collect several straws & twigs from different places. They work very hard. But, in this play, both Jack & Jill show their instant gratification for luxuries & had brought them on installments without saving any money. That is, the word ‘nest’ acts as a contrary word for such a house.

Therefore, the title of this act is appropriate as it connotes the theme of the act — the pathetic condition of the couple, leading a luxurious life on installment basis under their charming nest, which is too on easy monthly installments.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Question 8.
Describe Jack’s house and the furniture that impressed Aunt Jane ?
Answer:
Jack’s house is a cosy one and the sitting room is full of pretty furniture. The things that charm Aunt Jane are the car, the piano, the refrigerator, the radiogram and so on. Aunt Jane thinks that they are wonderful and she is impressed by them.

Question 9.
Why did Aunt Jane refuse to sit on the furniture ?
Answer:
When Aunt Jane comes to know that Jack and Jill have bought all their things on instalment basis, she refuses to sit on the furniture. She really hates to borrow. “Cash down” is her motto. She has never owed a penny in her life.

Question 10.
What easy sources did Jack speak about to Aunt Jane to repay instalments ?
Answer:
Jack tells Aunt Jane that the things will be their after the payment of easy instalments. Jill says to her that there was a rise of five shillings the previous year and Jack modestly says that he is expecting a ten shilling rise that Christmas. He wants to pay off his instalments with his raised salary.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Question 11.
Who is the real owner of the house and other things till the payment of ail the instalments? Why do you think so?
Answer:
The finance corporation (Mr. Sage’s / Marks’s) spencer is the real owner of the house and other things till the payment of all the instalments. I think so because, one of the above (or all the above) mentioned corporations could have financed money for their buying their house and the other things.

Question 12.
What was the argument of Jack in support of purchasing the house on instalment basis ?
Answer:
Aunt Jane was astonished to hear that Jack and Jill had bought their house on instalment basis. Jack told her that he had to pay only ten pounds and then some instalments. He argued that it was uneconomic to go on paying rent year after year, when one could buy and enjoy a home.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Oral Activity:

Your dream mobile is on sale at a never before discount. Your earnings are just enough to manage life. If the shop offers an instalment facility, will you buy it ?

Question.
In groups, talk about the advantages and disadvantages of instalment schemes.
Answer:
I won’t buy my dream mobile even if the shop offers an instalment facility as my earnings are just enough to manage life. If I buy it on instalment basis, I have to pay more money towards its principal and interest. But with my meagre earnings I won’t bear it. Hence, I don’t opt to buy things on instalment basis.

Group 1
Instalment schemes give the low-salaried persons opportunity to buy goods or items that they would otherwise been unable to buy them. They can’t bear such a large amounts of money at one time to buy a thing.

Group 2
Yes, you are correct. On instalment basis, even poor people can buy expensive things. The poor and the low-income groups are really thankful to this system.

Group 3
The instalment system makes it easier to buy very expensive things because the payment is spread over a period of time. The persons who buy things on instalment basis don’t face any difficulty to pay off their bills.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Group 4
We strongly oppose the instalment system. Though we pay off some of our instalments, the thing won’t be ours till the payment of all our instalments. The buyer has to pay an additional amount of money in the form of interest.

Group 5
We totally agree with you. Our buying things on instalment basis make us extravagant. When one buys many things on instalment basis one has to pay more money towards instalments. He finds it difficulty to pay off them. Hence, he has to consult a money¬lender to borrow money to pay off one’s bills. Thus, he may permanently be in debts.

Group 4
The buyer ends up spending a very long time paying for the thing he/she has bought. Because of this easy instalment system, buyers are tempted to buy things even though they don’t need.

Group 1
But this system gives the buyers a chance to enjoy the things eventhough they don’t pay off all the amount of money. They eventually own them that they can’t afford without facing any financial pressure. The low-income persons will make their dreams true by this system.

Group 3
We hate this instalment scheme. ‘Cash down’ – is our motto. Buying things by instalment keeps us permanently in debt. After some days, the buyers will have to lose all the things they buy on instalments when they can’t pay off their bills.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Writing Activity:

Buying things by easy instalments keeps you permanently in debt. Write down your points in favour/against the proposition.

Afterwards, work in pairs and have a debate in the class
Answer:
Under instalment purchase scheme, a fixed amount is paid at the time of purchase and the rest of the amount is to be paid in instalments, which may be monthly, quarterly, half yearly or yearly as per the agreement signed between the customer and the seller. An instalment is the amount which is paid by the customer at regular intervals after the initial payment.

Points in favour of the proposition “Buying things by instalments keeps you permanently in debt.”

If a person buys things on instalment system, he has to pay more money towards interest. When he finds it easy having the things on instalment basis, he tries to purchase more things which actually he doesn’t need. He simply pays a little initial amounts and keeps the things in his house.

But when he tries to pay off his instalments, he finds it difficult to pay them all. He has to face financial problems. His poor financial position takes him to a money-lender to borrow the money he needs to pay off the bills. He has to pay more money towards interest. He may not clear his debts later and thus he has to face financial crisis. Thus, instalment scheme keeps one permanently in debts.

Eventhough one has paid some of the cost of the thing, one doesn’t get the ownership until one finishes paying all the instalments. One has to spend a very long time paying for the thing one has bought. Because of the easy instalment scheme, one is tempted to buy things that one doesn’t need.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Points against the proposition, “Buying things by instalments keeps you permanently in debts.”

Instalment scheme enables a person to buy costly goods on covenient terms of payment. This scheme encourages the buyer to save at regular intervals so as to pay the instalment basis. This system gives the low-income earners the opportunity to buy goods which they actually unable to buy them because of their low wages and poor financial condition.

They can’t bear such a large amounts of money at one time to buy a thing. Even poor people can buy expensive things through this instalment system. Their dreams would come true with this system. They don’t face financial crisis under this system as the payment is spread over a period of time. This system gives the buyers a chance to enjoy the things even though they don’t pay off all the instalments.

They eventually own them that they can’t afford without facing any difficulty. Buyers don’t feel the heavy burden of the prices of the goods. But, they need to take little care about the instalments they have to pay. They shouldn’t go for the things which they don’t need. They must calculate their income and expenditure. They should estimate their financial position. Then only they should buy things/goods on instalment basis.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

DEBATE

Pair work

Pair – 1

Pupil A:
This system gives the low-salaried earners the opportunity to buy things / goods which they actually unable to buy them because of their low wages and poor financial condition.

Pupil B:
I strongly object you. If a person buys things on instalment system, he has to pay more money towards interest. Hence, he has to face financial crisis.

Pair – 2

Pupil C:
Even poor people can buy expensive things through the instalment scheme. Their dreams would come true with this system. They don’t face financial crisis under this system. In fact they develop the habit of ‘savings’ to pay off their regular bills. The payment is spread over a period of time. Hence, there is no burden on the buyer. This sytem gives the buyers a chance to enjoy the things even though they don’t pay off all the instalments.

Pupil D:
No, I don’t agree with you. I really hate instalment system. “Cash down and carry the thing”, is my motto. I don’t want to become a borrower when one finds it easy having the things on instalment basis, one tries to buy more things which actually he doesn’t need. One has to face financial problems. Instalments keeps one permanently in debts.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Project Work:

I. Influence of technical gadgets on human relations.

Visit five houses in your neighbourhood and collect the information in the given format related to human relations i.e., spending quality time with the members of the family and friends, sharing and caring. Analyse the information and write a report by adding your opinion on how the modern gadgets are influencing human relations and present it before the class.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest 1

Answer:

1. Kishore’s House

Type of Gadgets Human relations before the accessibility Human relations after the accessibility
1. Television Human relations are maintained properly. There is a gap among the family members
2. Mobile phones All the family members move friendly and they share their feelings. They don’t take care of the other family members.
3. Computer/Internet Human relations are cordial. They don’t find enough time to spend with their family members and friends

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

2. Prakash’s House

Type of Gadgets Human relations before the accessibility Human relations after the accessibility
1. Television            The family members spend more time with one another The family relations are Ok.They sit along with other family members and watch T.V
2. Mobile phones They don’t find enough time to spend with their friends and family members They always talk with their friends on phone.
3. Computer/Internet The old people are well taken care of. They share their feelings among them. They don’t have time to spend with their family friends.

3. Ramya’s House

Type of Gadgets Human relations before the accessibility Human relations after the accessibility
1. Television Human relations are maintained properly. There is a gap among the family members
2. Mobile phones All the family members move friendly and they share their feelings. They don’t take care of the other family members
3. Computer/Internet Human relations are cordial. They don’t find enough time to spend with their family members and friends

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

4. Sneha’s House

Type of Gadgets Human relations before the accessibility Human relations after the accessibility
1. Television The family members spend more time with one another The family relations are Ok. They sit along with other family members and watch T.V
2. Mobile phones They don’t find enough time to spend with their friends and family members They always talk with their friends on phone.
3. Computer/Internet The old people are well taken care of. They share their feelings among them. They don’t have time to spend with their family friends.

5. Dharma Teja’s House

Type of Gadgets Human relations before the accessibility Human relations after the accessibility
1. Television The family relations are good. The family relations are good.
2. Mobile phones They find enough time to spend with their family members and friends. They chat on their phones with their friends. They don’t find time to spend with thier family members
3. Computer/Internet The family relations are pleasent. They spend all their time in chatting and sending and receiving E mails.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

REPORT

The gadgets such as television, mobile phones and computer/internet has their own effect on human relations. In most of the families, there is a lot of changes before and after the accessibility of technological gadgets. This report is about examining the effect of the technical gadgets on human relations. The gadgets affect one’s friendships, social lives, family relations, general health and personal achievements.

It is observed that the gadgets have a negative impact on relations specially with family. Many parents complain against their children that they are using computers and mobile phones so that they don’t find time to interact with the family members. As far as watching TV is concerned, all the family members sit in one place and watch the programmes. Thus, watching TV is useful in maintaining proper family relationships.

Before the accessibility of these gadgets, proper human relationships are maintained. The family relationships are cordial. They share their feelings with one another. They spend more time with their family members. They take care of their family members. They give value to other family members’ views. The children find time to play and spend with their friends.

But after the accessibility of technological gadgets, we observe a lot of change in family relations, relations with friends, sharing, caring, health etc. The parents are complaining that their children are spending most of their time in using the gadgets. They don’t even try to interact with their family members. They always watch TV programmes, talk on phones and sit in front of computers.

They don’t even find time to go to their friends and spend with them joyously. They don’t care for their family members. They don’t share their feelings with their family members. As they use their gadgets for longer periods of time, they are facing health problems. Their performance is not good in their studies. They become addicts of these gadgets. They can’t stay even a minute without the gadgets.

Although the technological gadgets have their own advantages, they have a negative influence upon the quality of our lives in some ways. As we can’t live without them in this modern world, we have to find a way to reduce the negative impact of those gadgets.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Self Assessment:

How well have I understand this unit?
Read and tick (✓) in the appropriate box.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest 2

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Answer:

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest 3

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

The Never – Never Nest Summary in English

‘The Never – Never Nest’ is a comic, one-act play written by Cedric Mount. The play tells us about the merits and demerits of buying things on instalment basis. The writer points out that the instalment system enables the low-income people to have things. On the other hand, this system makes people extravagant. They fall into the habit of borrowing which destroys them.

Jack and Jill were a young married couple. One day Aunt Jane visited them. She was pleased to see their cosy house and beautiful furniture. They were enjoying all the modern comforts. They had a radiogram, a car, a piano, a refrigerator. Aunt Jane thought that it was wonderful. She was surprised to know that they had all those tuings even though Jack’s salary was not very high.

Aunt Jane worried whether the cheque given by her to them for their wedding present was for two hundred pounds or two thousand pounds. She couldn’t understand how they could possess all those things. She feft that the rent for such a house must be very high. Jack replied that the house was theirs. He explained to her that they had purchased the house on instalment basis. They had to pay only ten pounds in cash and a few quarterly instalments to own the house.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Aunt Jane came to know that they had bought everything on instalment basis. Jack’s salary was only pounds a week. But, he had to pay actually to seven pounds eight and eight pence a week. When Aunt Jane asked Jack how he could pay the instalment amount, he replied that he could borrow money from the Thrift and Providence Trust Corporation for the payments. Aunt Jane was shocked to hear it.

Aunt Jane couldn’t want to stay at their house any more. Before her leaving, she gave them a cheque worth 10 pounds and asked them to pay off one of their bills and make at least one article completely theirs. When Jack went out to see Aunt Jane to the bus, Jill sent the money to Dr. Martin. But Jack had different thoughts. He wanted to pay off two instalments on the car.

Jack got angry when he heard that the cheque was sent to the doctor. Jill told him that they had to pay one more instalment and the baby would really theirs. The end of the play is ironical. The play is really a satire on the modern man’s craving for things on instalments.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 3C The Never - Never Nest

Glossary:

villa (n) = small house standing in its own garden;
cosy (adj) = warm and comfortable;
shriek (n) = a high loud cry;
exclaim (v) = speak with strong feelings;
thingummy (n) = a word used in spoken English, when the name of an object his been forgotten;
tartar (n) = an irritable, hard to cope with person ;
phew (interj.) = expression of tiredness, shock or relief ;
lounge (n) = sitting room ;
uneconomic (adj) = not likely to be profitable ;
relent (n) = decide to be less strict, determined or harsh ;
endorse (n) = write one’s name on the back of a cheque ;
infant (n) = child during the first few years of life ;
black out (n) = temporary loss of consciousness ;

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8B Once upon a Time (Poem)

Telangana SCERT TS 10th Class English Guide Pdf Unit 8B Once upon a Time (Poem) Textbook Questions and Answers.

TS 10th Class English Guide Unit 8B Once upon a Time (Poem)

Reading:

Once upon a time, son,
they used to laugh with their hearts
and laugh with their eyes:
but now they only laugh with their teeth,
while their ice-block-cold eyes
search behind my shadow.

There was a time indeed
they used to shake hands with their hearts:
but that’s gone, son.
Now they shake hands without hearts:
while their left hands search
my empty pockets.

‘Feel at home’! ‘Come again’:
they say, and when I come
again and feel
at home, once, twice,
there will be no thrice –
for then I find doors shut on me.

And I have learned too
to laugh with only my teeth
and shake hands without my heart.
I have also learned to say, ‘Goodbye
when I mean ‘Good-riddance’;
to say’ Glad to meet you’,
without being glad; and to say ‘It’s been
nice talking to you’, after being bored.

But believe me, son.
I want to be what I used to be
when I was like you. I want
to unlearn all these muting things.
Most of all, I want to releam
how to laugh, for my laugh in the mirror
shows only my teeth like a snake’s bare fangs !

So show me, son,
how to laugh; show me how
I used to laugh and smile
once upon a time when I was like you.

So I have learned many things, son.
I have learned to wear many faces
like dresses – home face,
office face, street face, host face,
cocktail face, with all their conforming smiles
like a fixed portrait smile.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8B Once upon a Time (Poem)

Comprehension:

I. Tick (✓) the option that will complete each of the following statements. In some cases more than one option may be possible.

Question 1.
In the first five stanzas the poet is talking about
a) the honest and innocent world of children
b) the insincere world of adults.
c) the difference between the past and the present.
d) the old and the young
Answer:
b) the insincere world of adults.
c) the difference between the past and the present.

Question 2.
The last four lines of the poem suggest
a) hope.
b) regret.
c) a sense of loss.
d) eagerness to learn.
Answer:
a) hope.
b) regret

Question 3.
The expression ‘Ice-cold-block eyes’ means
a) The eyes are wet with tears.
b) expressionless eyes.
c) a state of lack of feelings.
d) a dead man’s eyes.
Answer:
b) expressionless eyes.
c) a state of lack of feelings.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8B Once upon a Time (Poem)

Question 4.
‘They’ in line 4 of stanza 1 refers to
a) people in the past.
b) present day people.
c) all adults.
d) young children.
Answer:
c) all adults.

Question 5.
‘Their ….eyes search behind my shadow’ means
a) they avoid meeting his eyes.
b) they try to look at the darker side of the person.
c) they convey no emotions.
d) they try to see what is not there.
Answer:
b) they try to look at the darker side of the person.

Question 6.
The poet has learnt
a) to shake hands.
b) the ways of the world.
c) to laugh.
d) to put on masks.
Answer:
b) the ways of the world.
c) to laugh.

Question 7.
The poet wants to learn from his son because his son
a) is not corrupted by the ways of the world.
b) is more informed.
c) knows about good manners more than his father.
d) is more caring.
Answer:
a) is not corrupted by the ways of the world.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8B Once upon a Time (Poem)

II. Answer the following questions ¡n a sentence or two each.

Question 1.
When did people shake hands with their hearts?
Answer:
The people shook hands with their hearts in their childhood. Then they didn’t know the falsehood and hypocrisies of the world and they were not corrupted by the ways of the world. So, the people shook hands heartfully in their childhood days.

Question 2.
What is the poet crying over? What help does he want from his son?
Answer:
The poet says that he is fed up with the lifeless expressions and heartless ways of the world. He is crying over the loss of traits of his own character such as goodness, honesty, modesty and sincerity. He regrets over the corrupted and hypocritic ways of the world. The poet wants his son to help him to regain his heartful, sincere, innocent and child-like smile.

Question 3.
“Most of all, I want to relearn how to laugh, for my laugh In the mirror shows only my teeth like a snake’s bare fangs!”
Why does the poet mean by these lines?
Answer:
The line says that in the process of learning the ways of the world, he has forgotten the laugh, he once had. Now his laugh is not more than a grin. He feels that his teeth are like a snake’s fangs as his smile is artificial, insincere and hypocritic.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8B Once upon a Time (Poem)

Question 4.
What ¡s the tone of the poem?
Answer:
The poem has a mixed tone of sadness and great hope. It is truly emotional.

Question 5.
“Now they shake hands without hearts:
while their left hands search
my empty pockets.”
Why do the left hands search empty pockets now ? What does this indicate’
Answer:
The poet expresses his concern for the influence of the western world on age-old African custom. He feels that the once enthusiastic and friendly society of Africa now treated ts own people like strangers and looked at each other with suspicion and hostility.

The white imperialists always exploited and plundered the wealth of their colonies. So their left hands search the empty pockets of their subjects in an endeavour to rob them further.

Question 6.
The poet uses certain words to express frustration and sorrow. Identify these words.
Answer:

  1. Ice-block-cold-eyes
  2. many faces like dresses.
  3. a fixed portrait smile.
  4. laugh with teeth.
  5. shake hands without hearts.
  6. doors shut on me
  7. teeth like a snak&s bare fangs
  8. “believe me, son; I want to be what I used to be”.
  9. unlearn these muting things.
  10.  want to learn how to laugh etc.
    are the expressions used by the poet to express frustration and sorrow.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8B Once upon a Time (Poem)

Once Upon A Time (POEM) Summary in English

The poet Okara, compares the hypocritic ways of the modern society to the original ways of the previous generation. Once upon a time people used to laugh with their hearts and eyes. But now they laugh only with their teeth and searching the negative side of the person with evil eyes.

Once upon a time people used to shake hands with their hearts, but nowadays people shake hands without hearts and searching the other’s empty pocket with their left hands.

People ask us to feel at home and come again. But if we go there thrice, we can find the doors shut on us. So he says that modern man has learnt to wear many faces-home face, office face, street face etc. He has learnt to express a fixed portrait smile. The writer also has learnt to laugh with teeth and shake hands without heart. He also has learnt fake greeting and good bye etc.

But the poet says that he wants to be what he used to be – lively. He wishes to relearn how to laugh whole heartedly – but not a fake one.
He requests the modernman to show him how to laugh whole heartedly, like a child.

TS Board 10th Class English Guide Unit 8B Once upon a Time (Poem)

About the Author:

Gabriel Okara is an African poet. He was born in 1921 in Nigeria. He was educated at Government College, Umuahia. His parents were not rich. He worked as a book binder and later as an information officer at Enugu. He also wrote plays and features for broadcasting and became a poet of outstanding ability. His poems appeared regularly in Black Orpheus. He has also written a novel called Voice.

Glossary:

cold eyes (n.pharse) = evil eyes ;
cocktail (n) = a drink usually made from a mixture of one or more alcoholic drinks;
conform (v) = to be and thinking the same way as most other people in a group or society, normally acceptable ;
portrait (n) = a painting, drawing or photograph of a person especially of the head shoulders ;
good bye (n) = An exclamatory expression used forexpressing separation or leaving a person or place ;
good riddance (n) = a feeling of relief when an unwanted person leaves ;
muting (adj) = changing all the time; expressionless/not expressed in speech ;
fangs (n) = long, sharp teeth of some animals like snake and dogs ;